While several factors related to the air can have effects on how a baseball travels, the temperature is one of the biggest. According to Popular Science, air temperature also changes the air’s density. In colder temperatures, the air becomes denser which makes it harder for the ball to travel through the tightly packed molecules. Conversely, warm temperatures cause the air to become less dense and easier for a ball to travel through.

“For a ball hit at the typical home run speed and trajectory, a 10 degree [Fahrenheit] change in temperature is worth about a little over three feet in distance,” Allen Nathan, a professor at the University of Illinois told Popular Science. “It might not seem like very much, but over the course of a whole season, it actually starts to add up.”

Nathan created a model that shows the relationship between temperature and distance and gives an idea of just how big of an impact such changes can have (via Baseball Prospectus).


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